Sunday, 21 October 2012

Husam al-Haramayn

بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
Husam al-Haramayn

In 1902, Imam Ahmed Raza Khan (d. 1921), may Allah have mercy on him, published the fatwa of kufr (unbelief) in Al-Mo’tamad Al-Mustanad [The Reliable Proofs] against the Indian ‘Ulama that had been heavily influenced by the deviant Wahhabi movement in Arabia.  These ‘Ulama primarily belonged to Darul Uloom Deoband (established in 1867) and are commonly known as Deobandis.
The said fatwa was a powerful defense of Islamic orthodoxy against some of the heretical and malicious statements propounded by the scholars of Deoband. It was originally Imam Ahmed Raza’s marginal notes on  al-Mu’taqad al-Muntaqad [The Dependable Work] written by the famous Indian Hanafi and Maturidi Shaykh, Allama Fazl-i Rasul Badayuni (d. 1871), may Allah have mercy on him.  The Badayuni family had been known for its intellectual brilliance for generations.  Allama Fazl-i Rasul Badayuni had debated with the chief Najdi of India and their patron, Ismail Dihlawi (d. 1831).  He was amongst the earliest Indian ‘Ulama to refute the Wahhabiyya.
Imam Ahmed Raza recorded some of his contemporaries errant statements verbatim in a summation of Al-Mo’tamad Al-Mustanad, which he then personally took to Mecca and Medina during his second Hajj in 1905.  He beseeched the esteemed fuqaha in the two holy cities to verify whether the verdict of apostasy was correct or mistaken, not surprisingly, thirty-three ‘Ulama of the Haramayn enthusiastically certified the fatwa against Muhammad Qasim Nanotwi (d.1879), Rashid Ahmad Gangohi (d.1905), Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri (d.1927), Ashraf Ali Thanwi (d.1943), and Mirza Ghulam Qadiani (d. 1908), the founder of the Ahmadiyya community who professed to be the promised Messiah and Mahdi. Their verdicts, testimonials, and comments were compiled into one famous book, Husam al-Haramayn [The Sword of the Two Sanctuaries].  The fatwa of kufr, Al-Mo’tamad Al-Mustanad, is also part of this compilation.
In 1926, Mawlana Hashmat ‘Ali Khan (d. 1960), may Allah have mercy on him, further adduced the names of 268 ‘Ulama from the Subcontinent verifying the fatwa of kufr in al-Sawarim al-Hindiyya [The Throng of India].  Thus, altogether Husam al-Haramayn has been ratified by three-hundred and one ‘Ulama from the Arab world and the Subcontinent. This was in all probability one of the most authoritative and comprehensive attempts by scholars to defend Islam from the people of falsehood.
Insha’Allah, next week there will be a post on the official Deobandi Aqida Book, al-Muhannad ala al-Mufannad [The Sword on the Disapproved] (1323 A.H./1905 C.E.).
To study Imam Ahmad Raza’s personal account of his journey to the Haramayn and his activities there, please read the beginning of volume two of his utterances, The Malfuzat Shareef, translated by Shaykh ‘Abd al-Hādi al-Qādiri.
Tamheedul Iman provides the rational behind the fatwa of kufr and answers many of the false accusations brought against the august Mujaddid. The Thesis of Imam Ahmed Raza includes this outstanding legal response among other indispensable works.